Below are represented the three models of genetic transmission of phenotypes (such as antisocial behavior) from parents to children (Reiss, 1997).
These models can also be applied to the role of sensitive responding by parents in the development of children's attachment styles.
- Passive Model: genetic effects are attributed to the 50 percent overlap in genes between a parent and biological child. For example, the same genes that cause a child to be antisocial may cause a parent to be angry toward the child.
- Evocative Models:
- Child-Effects Model: genes cause antisocial behavior in the child, which causes the parent's anger. In this model, what the parent does does not matter in the development of antisocial behavior.
- Parent-Effects Model: genes cause the child's temperament, which causes the parent's anger, which causes antisocial behavior in the child. In this model, what the parent does does matter in the development of antisocial behavior.
Reiss, D. (1997). Mechanisms linking genetic and social influences in adolescent development: Beginning a collaborative search. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 100-105.
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