Immanuel Kant believed that observations are structured by the a priori categories of the mind. These innate categories (e.g., cause and effect) are not subject to voluntary change. Pessimistic Kantians believe that the real world beyond our innate conceptual framework is forever unknowable. Optimistic Kantians believe that God created our innate conceptual framework to mirror the real world.

[Approaches] [Passivists] [Activists] [Justificationists] [Conventionalists] [Inductivists] [Probabilists] [Dogmatic Falsificationists] [Kantians] [Revolutionary Conventionalists] [Anti-Realism] [Realism] [Duhem] [Popper] [Lakatos]

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