Level 3: Construction
A construction is a whole psychoanalytic story about a patient's psyche, from the patient's early infantile history to the patient's present state, including an etiological account of the patient's symptoms. Interpretations and some kinds of patient productions are considered evidence for a construction.
The figure below (Von Eckardt, 1986) represents epistemological problems in Freud's use of clinical data as discussed by Grünbaum (1984) (circled numbers correspond to numbered problems at left; arrows represent the relation "is considered evidence for").
- suggestibility (pp. 130-135);
- failure of tally argument (pp. 135-172);
- weakness of consilience argument (pp. 273-278);
- Nisbett and Wilson findings (pp. 147-148);
- problems with Breuer-Freud argument (pp. 177-189);
- problems with extrapolation to slips and dreams (pp. 190-239);
- problems with establishing causal claims by retrospective testing (pp. 177-189).
Grünbaum, A. (1984). The foundations of psychoanalysis: A philosophical critique. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Von Eckardt, B. (1986). Grünbaum's challenge to Freud's logic of argumentation: A reconstruction and an addendum. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 262-263
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