Personality Readings

Table of Contents

This page contains suggested readings on many personality research programs. Included are articles and chapters by both proponents and critics, with preference given to scholarly sources. References are listed in the order it is suggested that they be read. More general treatments can be found in recent
Personality Textbooks, and further readings can be found in Personality Journals.

General Personality

Revelle, W. (1995). Personality processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 295-328.

McAdams, D. P. (1995). What do we know when we know a person? Journal of Personality, 63, 365-396.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1995). Trait explanations in personality psychology. European Journal of Personality, 9, 231-252

Diener, E. (1996). Traits can be powerful, but are not enough: Lessons from subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 389-399.

Carver, C. S. (1996). Emergent integration in contemporary personality psychology. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 319-334.

Dweck, C. S. (1996). Capturing the dynamic nature of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 348-362.

Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (1996). Rethinking and reclaiming the interdisciplinary role of personality psychology: The science of human nature should be the center of the social sciences and humanities. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 363-373.

McClelland, D. C. (1996). Does the field of personality have a future? Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 429-434.

Epstein, S. (1996). Recommendations for the future development of personality psychology. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 435-446.

Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., & Pierce, G. R. (1996). Views of the future. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 447-453.

Roberts, B. W., & DelVecchio, W. F. (2000). The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 3-25.

Pervin, L. A. (1985). Personality: Current controversies, issues, and directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 83-114.

Allport, G. W. (1927). Concepts of trait and personality. Psychological Bulletin, 24, 284-293.

Allport, F. H., & Allport, G. W. (1921). Personality traits: Their classification and measurement. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 16, 6-40.

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General Psychology

Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671-684.

Robins, R. W., Gosling, S. D., & Craik, K. H. (1999). An empirical analysis of trends in psychology. American Psychologist, 54, 117-128.

McGuire, W. J. (1997). Creative hypothesis generating in psychology: Some useful heuristics. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 1-30.

Feist, G. J. (1994). Personality and working style predictors of integrative complexity: A study of scientists thinking about research and teaching. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 474-484.

Gigerenzer, G. (1991). From tools to theories: A heuristic of discovery in cognitive psychology. Psychological Review, 98, 254-267.

Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1993). The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment. American Psychologist, 48, 1181-1209.

Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (1992). When small effects are impressive. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 160-164.

Hedges, L. V. (1987). How hard is hard science, how soft is soft science? American Psychologist, 42, 443-455.

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Lakatos, I. (1970). Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge (pp. 91-196). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kuhn, T. S. (1977). Objectivity, value judgment, and theory choice. In T. S. Kuhn, The essential tension: Selected studies in scientific tradition and change (pp. 320-339). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Eysenck, H. J. (1997). Personality and experimental psychology: The unification of psychology and the possibility of a paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1224-1237.

Meehl, P. E. (1978). Theoretical risks and tabular asterisks: Sir Karl, Sir Ronald, and the slow progress of soft psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 806-834.

Dar, R. (1987). Another look at Meehl, Lakatos, and the scientific practices of psychologists. American Psychologist, 42, 145-151.

Wallach, L., & Wallach, M. A. (1994). Gergen versus the mainstream: Are hypotheses in social psychology subject to empirical test? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 233-242.

Gergen, K. J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 309-320.

Schlenker, B. R. (1974). Social psychology and science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 1-15.

Theocharis, T., & Psimopoulos, M. (1987). Where science has gone wrong. Nature, 329, 595-598.

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Achievement Motivation

Achievement Motivation: Founders

McClelland, D. C. (1985). How motives, skills, and values determine what people do. American Psychologist, 40, 812-825.

Atkinson, J. W. (1981). Studying personality in the context of an advanced motivational psychology. American Psychologist, 36, 117-128.

Achievement Motivation: Proponents

Tuerlinckx, F., De Boeck, P., & Lens, W. (2002). Measuring needs with the Thematic Apperception Test: A psychometric study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 448-461.

Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218-232.

Elliot, A. J., & Sheldon, K. M. (1997). Avoidance achievement motivation: A personal goals analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 171-185.

Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461-475.

Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Carter, S. M., Lehto, A. T., & Elliot, A. J. (1997). Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1284-1295.

Chang, W. C., Wong, W. K., Teo, G., & Fam, A. (1997). The motivation to achieve in Singapore: In search of a core construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 885-895.

Furnham, A., Kirkaldy, B. D., & Lynn, R. (1996). Attitudinal correlates of national wealth. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 345-353.

Schroth, M. L., & Lund, E. (1994). Relationships between need achievement, sensation seeking and cognitive performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 861-867.

Fodor, E. M., & Carver, R. A. (2000). Achievement and power motives, performance feedback, and creativity. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 380-396.

Sturman, T. S. (1999). Achievement motivation and Type A behavior as motivational orientations. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 189-207.

Humphreys, M. S., & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality, motivation, and performance: A theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychological Review, 91, 153-184.

McAdams, D. P., Rothman, S., & Lichter, S. R. (1982). Motivational profiles: A study of former political radicals and politically moderate adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 593-603.

Achievement Motivation: Child Development

Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children's motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 33-52.

Oldani, R. (1997). Causes of increases in achievement motivation: Is the personality influenced by prenatal environment? Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 403-410.

Achievement Motivation: Evolutionary Origins

Perusse, D. (1993). Cultural and reproductive success in industrial societies: Testing the relationship at the proximate and ultimate levels. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 267-283.

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Attachment Theory

Attachment Theory: Founders

Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 573-685.

Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to child development. American Psychologist, 46, 333-341.

Attachment Theory: Critics

Field, T. (1996). Attachment and separation in young children. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 541-561.

Lamb, M. E., Thompson, R. A., Gardner, W. P., Charnov, E. L, & Estes, D. (1984). Security of infantile attachment as assessed in the "strange situation": Its study and biological interpretation. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 127-171.

Attachment Theory: Proponents

Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.

Cooper, M. L., Shaver, P. R., & Collins, N. L. (1998). Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1380-1397.

Davila, J., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (1999). Attachment change processes in the early years of marriage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 783-802.

Florian, V., & Mikulincer, M. (1998). Symbolic immortality and the management of the terror of death: The moderating role of attachment style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 725-734.

Griffin, D. W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445.

Shaver, P. R., & Brennan, K. A. (1992). Attachment styles and the "Big Five" personality traits: Their connections with each other and with romantic relationship outcomes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 536-545.

Kraemer, G. W. (1992). A psychobiological theory of attachment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15, 493-541.

Attachment Theory: Child Development

Vaughn, B., Stevenson-Hinde, J., Waters, E., Kotsaftis, A., Lefever, G., Shouldice, A., Trudel, M., & Belsky, J. (1992). Attachment security and temperament in infancy and early childhood: Some conceptual clarifications. Developmental Psychology, 28, 463-473.

Sroufe, L. A. (1985). Attachment classification from the perspective of infant-caregiver relationships and infant temperament. Child Development, 56, 1-14.

Main, M., & Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age six: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a one-month period. Developmental Psychology, 24, 415-426.

Attachment Theory: Evolutionary Origins

Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1998). Evolution, pair-bonding, and reproductive strategies: A reconceptualization of adult attachment. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 353-393). New York: Guilford.

Suomi, S. J. (1997). Early determinants of behaviour: Evidence from primate studies. British Medical Journal, 53, 170-184.

Hinde, R. A. (1989). Ethological and relationship approaches. In R. Vatsa (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 6, pp. 251-285). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Attachment Theory: Behavior Genetics

Waller, N. G., & Shaver, P. R. (1994). The importance of nongenetic influence on romantic love styles: A twin-family study. Psychological Science, 5, 268-274.

Attachment Theory: Personality Disorders

Paris, J. (1998). Anxious traits, anxious attachment, and anxious-cluster personality disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 6, 142-148.

Brennan, K. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Attachment styles and personality disorders: Their connections to each other and to parental divorce, parental death, and perceptions of parental caregiving. Journal of Personality, 66, 835-878.

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Basic Emotions

Basic Emotions: Founder

James, W. (1884). What is an emotion? Mind, 9, 188-205.

Basic Emotions: Critics

Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 315-331.

Turner, T. J., & Ortony, A. (1992). Basic emotions: Can conflicting criteria converge? Psychological Review, 99, 566-571.

Fridlund, A. J. (1991). Evolution and facial action in reflex, social motive, and paralanguage. Biological Psychology, 32, 3-100.

Basic Emotions: Proponents

Ekman, P. (1992). Are there basic emotions? Psychological Review, 99, 550-553.

Panksepp, J. (1992). A critical role for "affective neuroscience" in resolving what is basic about basic emotions. Psychological Review, 99, 554-560.

Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99, 561-565.

Buck, R. (1999). The biology of affects: A typology. Psychological Review, 106, 301-336.

Scott, S. K., Young, A. W., Calder, A. J., Hellawell, D. J., Aggleton, J. P., & Johnson, M. (1997). Impaired auditory recognition of fear and anger following bilateral amygdala lesions. Nature, 385, 254-257.

Oatley, K., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1987). Towards a cognitive theory of emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 1, 29-50.

Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Oatley, K. (1992). Basic emotions, rationality, and folk theory. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 201-223.

Stein, N. L., & Oatley, K. (1992). Basic emotions: Theory and measurement. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 161-168.

Tomkins, S. S. (1984). Affect theory. In K. P. Scherer & P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 163-195). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Panksepp, J. (1982). Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 407-467.

Ross, E. D., Homan, R. W., & Buck, R. (1994). Differential hemispheric lateralization of primary and social emotions: Implications for developing a comprehensive neurology for emotions, repression, and the subconscious. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 7, 1-19.

Shaver, P. R., Morgan, H. J., & Wu, S. (1996). Is love a 'basic' emotion? Personal Relationships, 3, 81-96.

Basic Emotions: Child Development

Camras, L. A. (1992). Expressive development and basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 269-283.

Basic Emotions: Evolutionary Origins

Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169-200.

Basic Emotions: Behavior Genetics

Lesch, K. P., Bengel, D., Heils, A., Sabol, S. Z., Greenberg, B. D., Petri, S., Benjamin, J., Muller, C. R., Hamer, D. H., & Murphy, D. L. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science, 274, 1527-1531.

Basic Emotions: Personality Disorders

Plutchik, R. (1997). The circumplex as a general model of the structure of emotions and personality. In R. Plutchik and H. R. Conte (Eds.), Circumplex models of personality and emotions (pp. 17-45). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Behavior Genetics

Behavior Genetics: Founder

Galton, F. (1875). History of twins. In F. Galton, Inquiries into human faculty and its development (pp. 155-173). London: Dent.

Behavior Genetics: Critics

Turkheimer, E. (1998). Heritability and biological explanation. Psychological Review, 105, 782-791.

McGuffin, P., & Huckle, P. (1990). Simulation of Mendelism revisited: The recessive gene for attending medical school. American Journal of Human Genetics, 46, 994-999.

de Jong, H. L. (2000). Genetic determinism: How not to interpret behavioral genetics. Theory & Psychology, 10, 615-637.

Joseph, J. (1998). The equal environment assumption of the classical twin method: A critical analysis. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 19, 325-358.

Gifford, F. (1990). Genetic traits. Biology and Philosophy, 5, 327-347.

Behavior Genetics: Proponents

Sherman, S. L., DeFries, J. C., Gottesman, I. I., Loehlin, J. C., Meyer, J. M., Pelias, M. Z., Rice, J., & Waldman, I. (1997). Recent developments in human behavioral genetics: Past accomplishments and future directions. American Journal of Human Genetics, 60, 1265-1275.

Strohman, R. C. (1997). The coming Kuhnian revolution in biology. Nature Biotechnology, 15, 194-199.

Martin, N., Boomsma, D., & Machin, G. (1997). A twin-pronged attack on complex traits. Nature Genetics, 17, 387-392.

Lander, E. S., & Schork, N. J. (1994). Genetic detection of complex traits. Science, 265, 2037-2048.

Plomin, R. (1990). The role of inheritance in behavior. Science, 248, 183-188.

Plomin, R., & Daniels, D. (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 1-60.

Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science, 250, 223-228.

Viken, R. J., Rose, R. J., Kaprio, J., & Koskenvus, M. (1994). A developmental genetic analysis of adult personality: Extraversion and neuroticism from 19 to 59 years of age. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 722-730.

Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Eaves, L. J., & Kendler, K. S. (1992). Evidence for genetic influences on personality from self-reports and informant ratings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 85-96.

Baker, L. A., & Daniels, D. (1990). Nonshared environmental influences and personality differences in adult twins. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 103-110.

Behavior Genetics: Child Development

Harris, J. R. (1995). Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review, 102, 458-489.

Behavior Genetics: Evolutionary Origins

Bouchard, T. J., & Loehlin, J. C. (2001). Genes, evolution, and personality. Behavior Genetics, 31, 243-273.

Segal, N. L., & MacDonald, K. B. (1998). Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: Unified perspective on personality research. Human Biology, 70, 159-184.

Behavior Genetics: Personality Disorders

Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., Taylor, A., & Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851-854.
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Behaviorism: Founders

Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177.

Skinner, B. F. (1989). The origins of cognitive thought. American Psychologist, 44, 13-18.

Behaviorism: Critics

Chomsky, N. (1959). A review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal behavior. Language, 35, 26-58.

Seligman, M. E. P. (1970). On the generality of the laws of learning. Psychological Review, 77, 406-418.

Dennett, D. C. (1978). Skinner skinned. In D. C. Dennett, Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology (pp. 53-70). Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books.

Zuriff, G. E. (1979). Ten inner causes. Behaviorism, 7, 1-8.

Bargh, J. A., & Ferguson, M. J. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 925-945.

Behaviorism: Proponents

Rescorla, R. A. (1988). Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is. American Psychologist, 43, 151-160.

Kimble, G. A. (1994). A new formula for behaviorism. Psychological Review, 101, 254-258.

Zuriff, G. E. (1986). Précis of Behaviorism: A conceptual reconstruction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 687-724.

Turkkan, J. S. (1989). Classical conditioning: The new hegemony. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 121-179.

Dennett, D. C. (1978). Why the law of effect will not go away. In D. C. Dennett, Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology (pp. 71-89). Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books.

Domjan, M., Cusato, B., & Villarreal, R. (2000) Pavlovian feed-forward mechanisms in the control of social behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 235-282.

DeGrandpre, R. J. (2000). A science of meaning: Can behaviorism bring meaning to psychological science? American Psychologist, 55, 721-739.

Slife, B. D., Yanchar, S. C., & Williams, B. (1999). Conceptions of determinism in radical behaviorism: A taxonomy. Behavior and Philosophy, 27, 75-96.

Skinner, B. F. (1986). What is wrong with daily life in the Western world? American Psychologist, 41, 568-574.

Behaviorism: Evolutionary Origins

Skinner, B. F. (1984). Selection by consequences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 477-510. (This article originally appeared in Skinner, B. F. [1981]. Selection by consequences. Science, 213, 501-504.)

Hull, D. L., Langman, R. E., & Glenn, S. S. (2001). A general account of selection: Biology, immunology and behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 511-573.

Behaviorism: Personality Disorders

Clark, L. A., Livesley, W. J., & Morey, L. (1997). Personality disorder assessment: The challenge of construct validity. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11, 205-231.

Follette, W. C. (1997). A behavior analytic conceptualization of personality disorders: A response to Clark, Livesley, and Morey. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11, 232-241.

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Cognitive Social Theories

Cognitive Social Theories: Founders

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582.

Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 80, 252-283.

Cognitive Social Theories: Critics

Epstein, S. (1979). Stability of behavior: 1. Predicting most of the people much of the time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1097-1126.

Kenrick, D. T., & Funder, D. C. (1988). Profiting from controversy: Lessons from the person-situation debate. American Psychologist, 43, 23-34.

Johnson, J. A. (1999). Persons in situations: Distinguishing new wine from old wine in new bottles. European Journal of Personality, 13, 443-453.

Gergen, K. J. (1989). Social psychology and the wrong revolution. European Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 463-484.

Cognitive Social Theories: Proponents

Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 193-209.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26.

Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102, 246-268.

Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319-340.

Linville, P. W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 663-676.

Rafaeli-Mor, E., & Steinberg, J. (2002). Self-complexity and well-being: A review and research synthesis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 31-58.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Woodward, W. R. (1982). The "discovery" of social behaviorism and social learning theory, 1870-1980. American Psychologist, 37, 396-410.

Cognitive Social Theories: Child Development

Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933-938.

Burhans, K., & Dweck, C. S. (1995). Helplessness in early childhood: The role of contingent worth. Child Development, 66, 1719-1738.

Cognitive Social Theories: Evolutionary Origins

Byrne, R. W., & Russon, A. E. (1998). Learning by imitation: A hierarchical approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 667-721.

Heyes, C. M. (1998). Theory of mind in nonhuman primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 101-134.

Cognitive Social Theories: Behavior Genetics

Olson, J. M., Vernon, P. A., Harris, J. A., & Jang, K. L. (2001). The heritability of attitudes: A study of twins. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 845-860.

Waller, N. G., Kojetin, B. A., Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Genetic and environmental influences on religious interest, attitudes, and values: A study of twins reared apart and together. Psychological Science, 1, 138-142.

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Evolutionary Psychology

Evolutionary Psychology: Founder

Wilson, E. O. (1975). Man: From sociobiology to sociology. In E. O. Wilson, Sociobiology: The new synthesis (pp. 547-575). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Evolutionary Psychology: Critics

Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423.

DeSteno, D. A., & Salovey, P. (1996). Evolutionary origins of sex differences in jealousy? Questioning the "fitness" of the model. Psychological Science, 7, 367-372.

Cervone, D. (2000). Evolutionary psychology and explanation in personality psychology: How do we know which module to invoke? American Behavioral Scientist, 43, 1001-1014.

Lewontin, R. C. (1979). Sociobiology as an adaptationist program. Behavioral Science, 24, 5-14.

Kitcher, P. (1987). Précis of Vaulting ambition: Sociobiology and the quest for human nature. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 61-100.

Vining, D. R. (1986). Social versus reproductive success: The central theoretical problem of human sociobiology. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 167-216.

Evolutionary Psychology: Proponents

Ketelaar, T., & Ellis, B. J. (2000). Are evolutionary explanations unfalsifiable? Evolutionary psychology and the Lakatosian philosophy of science. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 1-21.

Archer, J. (1996). Sex differences in social behavior: Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible? American Psychologist, 51, 909-917.

Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mating: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 1-49.

Kenrick, D. T., & Keefe, R. C. (1992). Age preferences in mates reflect sex differences in human reproductive strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15, 75-133.

Gangestad, S. W., & Simpson, J. A. (2000). The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 573-644.

Bailey, J. M., Gaulin, S., Agyei, Y., & Gladue, B. A. (1994). Effects of gender and sexual orientation on evolutionarily relevant aspects of human mating psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1081-1093.

Pinker, S., & Bloom, P. (1990). Natural language and natural selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 707-784.

Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1988). Evolutionary social psychology and family homicide. Science, 242, 519-524.

Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1990). On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: The role of genetics and adaptation. Journal of Personality, 58, 17-67.

Evolutionary Psychology: Child Development

Scarr, S. (1993). Biological and cultural diversity: The legacy of Darwin for development. Child Development, 64, 1333-1353.

Evolutionary Psychology: Behavior Genetics

Eaves, L. J., Martin, N. G., Heath, A. C., Hewitt, J. K., & Neale, M. C. (1990). Personality and reproductive fitness. Behavior Genetics, 20, 563-568.

Evolutionary Psychology: Personality Disorders

Mealey, L. (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523-599.

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Five-Factor Model

Five-Factor Model: Founder

Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 574-583.

Five-Factor Model: Critics

Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187-215.

Block, J. (1995). Going beyond the five factors given: Rejoinder to Costa and McCrae (1995) and Goldberg and Saucier (1995). Psychological Bulletin, 117, 226-229.

Eysenck, H. J. (1992a). Four ways five factors are not basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 667-673.

Eysenck, H. J. (1992b). A reply to Costa and McCrae. P or A and C--The role of theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 867-868.

Paunonen, S. V., & Jackson, D. N. (2000). What is beyond the Big Five? Plenty! Journal of Personality, 68, 821-835.

McAdams, D. P. (1992). The five-factor model in personality: A critical appraisal. Journal of Personality, 60, 329-361.

Five-Factor Model: Proponents

Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1995). Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 216-220.

Goldberg, L. R., & Saucier, G. (1995). So what do you propose we use instead? A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 221-225.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992a). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653-665.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992b). Reply to Eysenck. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 861-865.

Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417-440.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist, 52, 509-516.

Saucier, G. (1992). Benchmarks: Integrating affective and interpersonal circles with the Big-Five personality factors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1025-1035.

Five-Factor Model: Child Development

Goldberg, L. R. (2001). Analyses of Digman's child-personality data: Derivation of Big-Five factor scores from each of six samples. Journal of Personality, 69, 709-743.

John, O. P., Caspi, A., Robins, R. W., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1994). The "Little Five": Exploring the nomological network of the five-factor model of personality in adolescent boys. Child Development, 65, 160-178.

Five-Factor Model: Evolutionary Origins

Ashton, M. C., Paunonen, S. V., Helmes, E., & Jackson, D. N. (1998). Kin altruism, reciprocal altruism, and the Big Five personality factors. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 243-255.

King, J. E., & Figueredo, A. J. (1997). The five-factor model plus dominance in chimpanzee personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 257-271.

Five-Factor Model: Behavior Genetics

Jang, K. L., McCrae, R. R., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., & Livesley, W. J. (1998). Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1556-1565.

Five-Factor Model: Personality Disorders

Widiger, T. A. (1993). The DSM-III-R categorical personality disorder diagnoses: A critique and an alternative. Psychological Inquiry, 4, 75-90.

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Intelligence: Founders

Galton, F. (1865). Hereditary talent and character. Macmillan's Magazine, 23, 157-166, 318-327.

Spearman, C. (1904). "General intelligence," objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201-293.

Intelligence: Critics

Dickens, W. T., & Flynn, J. R. (2001). Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved. Psychological Review, 108, 346-369.

Gould, S. J. (1996). The real error of Cyril Burt: Factor analysis and the reification of intelligence. In S. J. Gould, The mismeasure of man (pp. 264-350). New York: Norton.

Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1993). The g-ocentric view of intelligence and job performance is wrong. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 1-4.

Howe, M. J. A., Davidson, J. W., & Sloboda, J. A. (1998). Innate talents: Reality or myth? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 399-442.

Intelligence: Proponents

Gottfredson, L. S. (1997). Mainstream science on intelligence: An editorial with 52 signatories, history, and bibliography. Intelligence, 24, 13-23.

Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N., Ceci, S. J., Halpern, D. F., Loehlin, J. C., Perloff, R., Sternberg, R. J., & Urbina, S. (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51, 77-101.

Jensen, A. R. (1999). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Psycoloquy, 10(023).

Deary, I. J., & Stough, C. (1996). Intelligence and inspection time: Achievements, prospects, and problems. American Psychologist, 51, 599-608.

Acton, G. S., & Schroeder, D. H. (2001). Sensory discrimination as related to general intelligence. Intelligence, 29, 263-271.

Duncan, J., Rüdiger, J. S., Kolodny, J., Bor, D., Herzog, H., Ahmed, A., Newell, F. N., & Emslie, H. (2000). A neural basis for general intelligence. Science, 289, 457-460.

Ree, M. J., & Earles, J. A. (1992). Intelligence is the best predictor of job performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 86-89.

Urbach, P. (1974). Progress and degeneration in the 'IQ debate.' British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 25, 99-135, 235-259.

Intelligence: Child Development

Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (1994). Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development, 65, 684-698.

Intelligence: Evolutionary Origins

Geary, D. C. (1996). Sexual selection and sex differences in mathematical abilities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 229-284.

Skoyles, J. R. (1999). Human evolution expanded brains to increase expertise capacity, not IQ. Psycoloquy, 10(002).

Intelligence: Behavior Genetics

McClearn, G. E., Johansson, B., Berg, S., Pedersen, N. L., Ahern, F., Petrill, S. A., & Plomin, R. (1997). Substantial genetic influence on cognitive abilities in twins 80 or more years old. Science, 276, 1560-1563.

Bouchard, T. J. (1998). Genetic and environmental influences on adult intelligence and special mental abilities. Human Biology, 70, 257-279.

Intelligence: Personality Disorders

Stattin, H., & Klackenberglarsson, I. (1993). Early language and intelligence development and their relationship to future criminal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 369-378.
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Interpersonal Theory

Interpersonal Theory: Founders

Mead, G. H. (1913). The social self. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, 10, 374- 380.

Freedman, M. B., Leary, T. F., Ossorio, A. G., & Coffey, H. S. (1951). The interpersonal dimension of personality. Journal of Personality, 20, 143-161.

Interpersonal Theory: Critics

Orford, J. (1986). The rules of interpersonal complementarity: Does hostility beget hostility and dominance, submission? Psychological Review, 93, 365-377.

O'Connor, B. P., & Dyce, J. A. (1998). A test of models of personality disorder configuration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 3-16.

Gaines, S. O., Jr., Panter, A. T., Lyde, M. D., Steers, W. N., Rusbult, C. E., Cox, C. L., & Wexler, M. O. (1997). Evaluating the circumplexity of interpersonal traits and the manifestation of interpersonal traits in interpersonal trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 610-623.

Interpersonal Theory: Proponents

Kiesler, D. J. (1983). The 1982 interpersonal circle: A taxonomy for complementarity in human transactions. Psychological Review, 90, 185-214.

Benjamin, L. S. (1974). Structural analysis of social behavior. Psychological Review, 81, 392-425.

Wiggins, J. S. (1979). A psychological taxonomy of trait-descriptive terms: The interpersonal domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 395-412.

Wiggins, J. S. (1991). Agency and communion as conceptual coordinates for the understanding and measurement of interpersonal behavior. In D. Cicchetti & W. Grove (Eds.), Thinking clearly about psychology: Essays in honor of Paul Everett Meehl, Vol. 2, Personality and psychopathology (pp. 89-113). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Acton, G. S., & Revelle, W. (2004). Evaluation of ten psychometric criteria for circumplex structure. Methods of Psychological Research, 9, 1-27.

Acton, G. S., & Revelle, W. (2002). Interpersonal personality measures show circumplex structure based on new psychometric criteria. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 456-481.

Markey, P. M., Funder, D. C., & Ozer, D. J. (2003). Complementarity of interpersonal behaviors in dyadic interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1082-1090.

Gurtman, M. B. (2001). Interpersonal complementarity: Integrating interpersonal measurement with interpersonal models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 97-110.

Horowitz, L. M., Krasnoperova, E. N., Tatar, D. G., Hansen, M. B., Person, E. A., Galvin, K. L., & Nelson, K. L. (2001). The way to console may depend on the goal: Experimental studies of social support. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 49-61.

Wagner, C. C., Kiesler, D. J., & Schmidt, J. A. (1995). Assessing the interpersonal transaction cycle: Convergence of action and reaction interpersonal circumplex measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 938-949.

Tracey, T. J. (1994). An examination of the complementarity of interpersonal behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 864-878.

Interpersonal Theory: Child Development

Ratti, L. A., Humphrey, L. L., & Lyons, J. S. (1996). Structural analysis of families with a polydrug-dependent, bulimic, or normal adolescent daughter. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1255-1262.

Interpersonal Theory: Evolutionary Origins

Zuroff, D. C., Moskowitz, D. S., & Coté, S. (1999). Dependency, self-criticism, interpersonal behaviour and affect: Evolutionary perspectives. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 231-250.

Interpersonal Theory: Behavior Genetics

McGonigle, M. M., Smith, T. W., Benjamin, L. S., & Turner, C. W. (1993). Hostility and nonshared family environment: A study of monozygotic twins. Journal of Research in Personality, 27, 23-34.

Interpersonal Theory: Personality Disorders

Soldz, S., Budman, S., Demby, A., & Merry, J. (1993). Representation of personality disorders in circumplex and five-factor space: Explorations with a clinical sample. Psychological Assessment, 5, 41-52.
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Generalized Interpersonal Theory

Generalized Interpersonal Theory: Founders

Acton, G. S. (2004). The generalized interpersonal theory of personality and psychopathology. Manuscript in preparation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY.

Acton, G. S., & Zodda, J. J. (in press). Classification of psychopathology: Goals and methods in an empirical approach. Theory & Psychology.

Generalized Interpersonal Theory: Proponents

Hofstee, W. K. B., De Raad, B., & Goldberg, L. R. (1992). Integration of the Big Five and circumplex approaches to trait structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 146-163.

Wiggins, J. S. (1991). Agency and communion as conceptual coordinates for the understanding and measurement of interpersonal behavior. In D. Cicchetti & W. Grove (Eds.), Thinking clearly about psychology: Essays in honor of Paul Everett Meehl, Vol. 2, Personality and psychopathology (pp. 89-113). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 804-818.

Acton, G. S., Kunz, J. D., Wilson, M., & Hall, S. M. (in press). The construct of internalization: Conceptualization, measurement, and prediction of smoking treatment outcome. Psychological Medicine.

Krueger, R. F., Chentsova-Dutton, Y. E., Markon, K. E., Goldberg, D., & Ormel, J. (2003). A cross-cultural study of the structure of comorbidity among common psychopathological syndromes in the general health-care setting. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 437-447.

Krueger, R. F. (1999). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 921-926.

Krueger, R. F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1998). The structure and stability of common mental disorders (DSM-III-R): A longitudinal-epidemiological study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 216-227.

Coyne, J. C. (1999). Thinking interactionally about depression: A radical restatement. In T. Joiner & J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression: Advances in interpersonal approaches (pp. 365-392). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Butzlaff, R. L., & Hooley, J. M. (1998). Expressed emotion and psychiatric relapse: A meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 547-552.

Generalized Interpersonal Theory: Child Development

Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., Waldman, I. D., Loft, J. D., Hankin, B. L., & Rick, J. (2004). The structure of child and adolescent psychopathology: Generating new hypotheses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 358-385.

Caspi, A., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Bem, D. J. (1988). Moving away from the world: Life-course patterns of shy children. Developmental Psychology, 24, 824-831.

Caspi, A., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Bem, D. J. (1987). Moving against the world: Life-course patterns of explosive children. Developmental Psychology, 23, 308-313.

Generalized Interpersonal Theory: Evolutionary Origins

Watson, D., Wiese, D., Vaidya, J., & Tellegen, A. (1999). The two general activation systems of affect: Structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 820-838.

Generalized Interpersonal Theory: Behavior Genetics

Johnson, W., & Krueger, R. F. (2004). Genetic and environmental structure of adjectives describing the domains of the Big Five model of personality: A nationwide US twin study. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 448-472.

Hicks, B. M., Krueger, R. F., Iacono, W. G., McGue, M., & Patrick, C. J. (2004). Family transmission and heritability of externalizing disorders: A twin-family study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 922-928.

Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. (2003). Parent-child conflict and the comorbidity among childhood externalizing disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 505-513.

Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., Patrick, C. J., Carlson, S. R., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2002). Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: Modeling the externlizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 411-424.

Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., & Neale, M. C. (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 929-937.

Generalized Interpersonal Theory: Personality Disorders

O'Connor, B. P., & Dyce, J. A. (1998). A test of models of personality disorder configuration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 3-16.

De Boeck, P., Wilson, M., & Acton, G. S. (2005). A conceptual and psychometric framework for distinguishing categories and dimensions. Psychological Review.

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PEN Model

PEN Model: Founder

Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Biological dimensions of personality. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 244-276). New York: Guilford.

Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Dimensions of personality: 16, 5, or 3?--Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 773-790.

PEN Model: Critics

Gray, J. A. (1987). Perspectives on anxiety and impulsivity: A commentary. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 493-509.

Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 319-333.

Avila, C. (2001). Distinguishing BIS-mediated and BAS-mediated disinhibition mechanisms: A comparison of the disinhibition models of Gray (1981, 1987) and of Patterson and Newman (1993). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 311-324.

Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temparament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975-990.

Teigen, K. H. (1994). Yerkes-Dodson: A law for all seasons. Theory & Psychology, 4, 525-547.

PEN Model: Proponents

Depue, R. A., & Collins, P. F. (1999). Neurobiology of the structure of personality: Dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 491-569.

Acton, G. S. (2003). Measurement of impulsivity in a hierarchical model of personality traits: Implications for substance use. Substance Use & Misuse, 38, 67-83.

Canli, T., Zhao, Z., Desmond, J. E., Kang, E. J., Gross, J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2001). An fMRI study of personality influences on brain reactivity to emotional stimuli. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 33-42.

Stelmack, R. M. (1990). Biological bases of extraversion: Psychophysiological evidence. Journal of Personality, 58, 293-312.

Matthews, G., & Gilliland, K. (1999). The personality theories of H. J. Eysenck and J. A. Gray: A comparative review. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 583-626.

PEN Model: Child Development

Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. A. (1997). Low resting heart rate at age 3 years predisposes to aggression at age 11 years: Evidence from the Mauritius Child Health Project. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1457-1464.

PEN Model: Evolutionary Origins

Watson, D., Weise, D., Vaidya, J., & Tellegen, A. (1999). The two general activation systems of affect: Structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 820-838.

PEN Model: Behavior Genetics

Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences: The three major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality, 58, 245-261.

Heath, A. C., Cloninger, C. R., & Martin, N. G. (1994). Testing a model for the genetic structure of personality: A comparison of the personality systems of Cloninger and Eysenck. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 762-775.

PEN Model: Personality Disorders

Zuckerman, M. (1995). Good and bad humors: Biochemical bases of personality and its disorders. Psychological Science, 6, 325-332.

Eysenck, H. J. (1992). The definition and measurement of psychoticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 757-785.

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Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders: Founder

Foulds, G. A. (1971). Personality deviance and personal symptomatology. Psychological Medicine, 1, 222-233.

Personality Disorders: Critics

Widiger, T. A. (2000). Personality disorders in the 21st century. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 3-16.

Acton, G. S. (1998). Classification of psychopathology: The nature of language. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 19, 243-256.

Kendell, R. E. (1989). Clinical validity. Psychological Medicine, 19, 45-55.

Personality Disorders: Proponents

Meehl, P. E. (1990). Toward an integrated theory of schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia. Journal of Personality Disorders, 4, 1-99.

Claridge, G., McCrerry, C., Mason, O., Bentall, R., Boyle, G., Slade, P., & Popplewell, D. (1996). The factor structure of 'schizotypal' traits: A large replication study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 103-115.

Morey, L. C. (1997). Personality diagnosis and personality disorders. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 919-946). San Diego, CA: Academic.

Daley S. E., Burge, D., & Hammen, C. (2000). Borderline personality disorder symptoms as predictors of 4-year romantic relationship dysfunction in young women: Addressing issues of specificity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 451-460.

Daley, S. E., Hammen, C., Davila, J., & Burge, D. (1998). Axis II symptomatology, depression, and life stress during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 595-603.

Lenzenweger, M. F. (1999). Stability and change in personality disorder features: The longitudinal study of personality disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 1009-1015.

Zimmerman, M. (1994). Diagnosing personality disorders: A review of issues and research methods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 225-245.

Personality Disorders: Child Development

Johnson, J. G., Smailes, E. M., Cohen, P., Brown, J., & Bernstein, D. P. (2000). Associations between four types of childhood neglect and personality disorder symptoms during adolescence and early adulthood: Findings of a community-based longitudinal study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 171-187.

Paris, J. (1997). Childhood trauma as an etiological factor in the personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11, 34-49.

Personality Disorders: Behavior Genetics

Livesley, W. J., Jang, K. L., & Vernon, P. A. (1998). Phenotypic and genetic structure of traits delineating personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 941-948.

Nigg, J. T., & Goldsmith, H. H. (1994). Genetics of personality disorders: Perspectives from personality and psychopathology research. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 346-380.

McGuffin, P., & Thapar, A. (1992). The genetics of personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 12-23.

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Psychoanalysis: Founder

Freud, S. (1910). The origin and development of psychoanalysis. American Journal of Psychology, 21, 181-218.

Psychoanalysis: Critics

Popper, K. R. (1969). Science: Conjectures and refutations. In K. R. Popper, Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge (3rd ed., pp. 33-65). London: Routledge.

Grünbaum, A. (1986). Précis of The foundations of psychoanalysis: A philosophical critique. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 217-284.

Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1990). Is parent-offspring conflict sex-linked? Freudian and Darwinian models. Journal of Personality, 58, 163-189.

Loftus, E. F. (1997). Memories for a past that never was. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 60-65.

Baumeister, R. F., Dale, K., & Sommer, K. L. (1998). Freudian defense mechanisms and empirical findings in modern social psychology: Reaction formation, projection, displacement, undoing, isolation, sublimation, and denial. Journal of Personality, 66, 1081-1124.

Psychoanalysis: Proponents

Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 333-371.

Cramer, P. (2000). Defense mechanisms in psychology today: Further processes for adaptation. American Psychologist, 55, 637-646.

Cramer, P. (1999). Ego functions and ego development: Defense mechanisms and intelligence as predictors of ego level. Journal of Personality, 67, 735-760.

Anderson, S. M., & Berk, M. S. (1998). The social-cognitive model of transference: Experiencing past relationships in the present. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 109-115.

Glassman, N. S., & Andersen, S. M. (1999). Activating transference without consciousness: Using significant-other representations to go beyond what is subliminally given. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1146-1162.

Kihlstrom, J. F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. Science, 237, 1445-1452.

Blatt, S. J., & Auerbach, J. S. (2000). Psychoanalytic models of the mind and their contributions to personality research. European Journal of Personality, 14, 429-447.

Silverman, L. H., & Weinberger, J. (1985). Mommy and I are one: Implications for psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 40, 1296-1308.

Sohlberg, S., Birgegard, A., Czartoryski, W., Ovefelt, K., & Strömbom, Y. (2000). Symbiotic oneness and defensive autonomy: Yet another experiment demystifying Silverman's findings using "Mommy and I are one." Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 108-126.

Davis, D. A. (1994). A theory for the 90s: Traumatic seduction in historical context. Psychoanalytic Review, 81, 627-640.

Psychoanalysis: Child Development

Cramer, P., & Block, J. (1998). Preschool antecedents of defense mechanism use in young adults: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 159-169.

Psychoanalysis: Evolutionary Origins

Migone, P., & Liotti, G. (1998). Psychoanalysis and cognitive-evolutionary psychology: An attempt at integration. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 79, 1071-1095.

Psychoanalysis: Personality Disorders

Kernberg, O. (1998). Narcissistic personality disorders. Journal of European Psychoanalysis, 7, 7-18.

Vaillant, G. E. (1994). Ego mechanisms of defense and personality psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 44-50.

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Psychological Assessment

Psychological Assessment: Founder

Cattell, J. M. (1890). Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 15, 373-381.

Psychological Assessment: Critics

Faust, D., & Ziskin, J. (1988). The expert witness in psychology and psychiatry. Science, 241, 31-35.

Hunsley, J., & Bailey, J. M. (1999). The clinical utility of the Rorschach: Unfulfilled promises and an uncertain future. Psychological Assessment, 11, 266-277.

Hunsley, J., & Bailey, J. M. (2001). Whither the Rorschach? An analysis of the evidence. Psychological Assessment, 13, 472-485.

Psychological Assessment: Proponents

Mayer, G. J., Finn, S. E., Eyde, L. D., Kay, G. G., Moreland, K. L., Dies, R. R., Eisman, E. J., Kubiszyn, T. W., & Reed, G. M. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56, 128-165.

Cervone, D., Shadel, W. G., & Jencius, S. (2001). Social-cognitive theory of personality assessment. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, 33-51.

Lubinski, D. (2000). Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: "Sinking shafts at a few critical points." Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 405-444.

Matthews, G., Saklofske, D. H., Costa, P. T., Jr., Deary, I. J., & Zeidner, M. (1998). Dimensional models of personality: A framework for systematic clinical assessment. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 14, 36-49.

Harkness, A. R., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (1997). Individual differences science for treatment planning: Personality traits. Psychological Assessment, 9, 349-360.

Ozer, D. J., & Reise, S. P. (1994). Personality assessment. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 357-388.

Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public-domain personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In I. Mervielde, I. J. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe (Vol. 7, pp. 7-28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.

Goldberg, L. R. (in press). The comparative validity of adult personality inventories: Applications of a consumer-testing framework. In S. R. Briggs, J. M. Cheek, & E. M. Donahue (Eds.), Handbook of adult personality inventories. New York: Plenum.

Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 4, 5-13.

Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Waller, N. G. (1992). "Normal" personality inventories in clinical assessment: General requirements and the potential for using the NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 4, 14-19.

Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Reply to Ben-Porath and Waller. Psychological Assessment, 4, 20-22.

Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Waller, N. G. (1992). Five big issues in clinical personality assessment: A rejoinder to Costa and McCrae. Psychological Assessment, 4, 23-25.

McReynolds, P. (1989). Diagnosis and clinical assessment: Current status and major issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 83-108.

Jackson, D. N. (1971). The dynamics of structured personality tests: 1971. Psychological Review, 78, 229-248.

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Psychometrics: Founders

Spearman, C. (1904). "General intelligence," objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201-293.

Thurstone, L. L. (1934). The vectors of mind. Psychological Review, 41, 1-32.

Psychometrics: Critics

Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272-299.

Maraun, M. D. (1998). Measurement as a normative practice: Implications of Wittgenstein's philosophy for measurement in psychology. Theory & Psychology, 8, 435-461.

Maraun, M. D. (1996). Metaphor taken as math: Indeterminacy in the factor analysis model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 31, 517-538.

Maraun, M. D. (1996). Meaning and mythology in the factor analysis model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 31, 603-616.

Maraun, M. D. (1996). The claims of factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 31, 673-689.

Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. M. (1986). The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. Journal of Personality, 54, 106-148.

Psychometrics: Proponents

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.

Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.

Goldberg, L. R., & Digman, J. M. (1994). Revealing structure in the data: Principles of exploratory factor analysis. In S. Strack & M. Lorr (Eds.), Differentiating normal and abnormal personality (pp. 216-242). New York: Springer.

Zwick, W. R., & Velicer, W. F. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 432-442.

McArdle, J. J. (1996). Current directions in structural factor analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 11-18.

Zickar, M. J. (1998). Modeling item-level data with item response theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 104-109.

Embretson, S. E. (1996). The new rules of measurement. Psychological Assessment, 8, 341-349.

Shavelson, R. J., Webb, N. M., & Rowley, G. L. (1989). Generalizability theory. American Psychologist, 44, 922-932.

Messick, S. (1981). Constructs and their vissitudes in educational and psychological measurement. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 575-588.

Jensen, A. R. (1980). Précis of Bias in mental testing. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 325-371.

Jones, L. V., & Appelbaum, M. I. (1989). Psychometric methods. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 23-43.

Anastasi, A. (1986). Evolving concepts of test validation. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 1-15.

Dawes, R. M. (1979). The robust beauty of improper linear models in decision making. American Psychologist, 34, 571-582.

Wainer, H. (1976). Estimating coefficients in linear models: It don't make no nevermind. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 312-317.

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Measurement Theory

Measurement Theory: Founders

Russell, B. (1897). On the relations of number and quantity. Mind, 6, 326-341.

Stevens, S. S. (1946). On the theory of scales of measurement. Science, 103, 677-680.

Measurement Theory: Critics

Michell, J. (1997). Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 355-383.

Michell, J. (1994). Numbers as quantitative relations and the traditional theory of measurement. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 45, 389-406.

Michell, J. (1986). Measurement scales and statistics: A clash of paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 398-407.

Kline, P. (1997). Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology: Commentary. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 385-387.

Essex, C., & Smythe, W. E. (1999). Between numbers and notions: A critique of psychological measurement. Theory & Psychology, 9, 739-767.

Wood, R. (1978) Fitting the Rasch model: A heady tale. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 31, 27-32.

Measurement Theory: Proponents

Luce, R. D., & Tukey, J. W. (1964). Simultaneous conjoint measurement: A new type of fundamental measurement. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1, 1-27.

Narens, L., & Luce, R. D. (1986). Measurement: The theory of numerical assignment. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 166-180.

Luce, R. D. (1997). Quantification and symmetry: Commentary on Michell, quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 395-398.

Falmagne, J.-C. (1992). Measurement theory and the research psychologist. Psychological Science, 3, 88-93.

Cliff, N. (1992). Abstract measurement theory and the revolution that never happened. Psychological Science, 3, 186-190.

Narens, L., & Luce, R. D. (1993). Further comments on the "nonrevolution" arising from axiomatic measurement theory. Psychological Science, 4, 127-130.

Acton, G. S. (2003). What is good about Rasch measurement? Rasch Measurement Transactions, 16, 902-903.

Wright, B. D. (1977). Solving measurement problems with the Rasch model. Journal of Educational Measurement, 14, 97-116.

Perline, R., Wright, B. D., & Wainer, H. (1979). The Rasch model as additive conjoint measurement. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 237-255.

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Statistics: Founder

Fisher, R. A. (1941). The interpretation of experimental four-fold tables. Science, 94, 210-211.

Statistics: Critics

Cohen, J. (1994). The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist, 49, 997-1003.

Gigerenzer, G. (1993). The superego, the ego, and the id in statistical reasoning. In G. Keren & C. Lewis (Eds.), A handbook for data analysis in the behavioral sciences: Methodological issues (pp. 311-339). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Carver, R. P. (1978). The case against statistical significance testing. Harvard Educational Review, 48, 378-399.

Rozeboom, W. W. (1960). The fallacy of the null-hypothesis significance test. Psychological Bulletin, 57, 416-428.

Statistics: Proponents

Chow, S. L. (1998). Précis of Statistical significance: Rationale, validity, and utility. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 169-239.

Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (1989). Statistical procedures and the justification of knowledge in psychological science. American Psychologist, 44, 1276-1284.

Mulaik, S. A., James, L. R., Vanalstine, J., Bennett, N., Lind, S., & Stilwell, C. D. (1989). Evaluation of goodness-of-fit indexes for structural equation models. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 430-455.

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.

Wilkinson, L. (1979). Tests of significance in stepwise regression. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 168-174.

Knapp, T. R. (1978). Canonical correlation analysis: A general parametric significance-testing system. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 410-416.

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